autoclave for corrosion testing studiesautoclave for corrosion studies in India

Autoclave For Corrosion Testing.


Some of the features of autoclaves for corrosion testing

  • Volumes from 450ml to 25 ltrs.
  • Design pressure upto 350 bar and temperatures upto 500°C.
  • Available in different materials of construction – SS 316, Hastelloy C276, Inconel, Titanium etc.
  • Non-stirred/Stirred autoclave system
  • Recirculating loop & electrochemical corrosion testing

Methods of testing corrosion using autoclaves

  • Weight loss method with corrosion coupons
  • Electrical resistance probe
  • Electrochemical probe
  • Electrochemical noise in current or potential
Description Standard Optionals
Working Volumes
  1. 450ml, 750ml, 1lit, 2lit, 5lit, 10lit, 20lit & 25lit
  1. Other volumes can be customized, if possible
Material of Construction
  1. SS-316
  1. Hastelloy, Inconel, Titanium etc.
Design Pressure
  1. 100 bar (1450 psi)
  1. 200 bar (2900 psi)
  2. 350 bar (5000 psi) for 50ml to 10lit
Design Temperature
  1. 250°C (482°F)
  1. 350°C (662°F)
  2. 500°C (932°F)
Nozzles, Valves & Fittings
  1. Pressure gauge, vent needle valve, safety rupture disc, helical cooling coil, thermowell (with RTD-PT-100 temperature sensor), gas inlet &liquid sampling needle valve with common dip tube (sparger)
  1. Ball valve for powder/liquid inlet, flush bottom valve, serpentine cooling coil
Body & Head Sealing
  1. Split clamp type quick opening system with clamp bolts & flat gasket
  1. Split clamp with bolts
  2. Split clamp with ‘O’ ring & without clamp bolts
  3. Threaded clamp & vessel with ‘O’ ring seal
  4. Nut & bolts with flange & gasket
    PTFE (upto 350°C)
    Metallic Grafoil (for temperature>350°C upto 500°C)
Head Mounting Style
    Removable head and vessel design
  1. Fixed head design with removable vessel & heater (manual) – for 50ml to 1lit size
  2. Fixed head design with removable vessel & heater (motorized) – for 450ml to 5lit size
Motor & Drive
  1. Non flame proof / flameproof (explosion proof, IIA & IIB) geared AC motor (3 phase, 220V/415V, 50Hz) (if stirred autoclave)
  2. N.A. (if non stirred)
  1. Flame proof group IIC motor (if stirred)
  2. CE Atex IIC motor (if stirred)
Stirrer RPM
  1. 100-1450 rpm variable speed (if stirred)
  2. N.A. (if non stirred)
  1. 2900 rpm (upto 5lit autoclaves)
  2. 300-1500 rpm
Shaft sealing
  1. Zero leakage magnetic drive coupling(if stirred)
  2. N.A. (if non stirred)
  1. 4 bladed pitch blade turbine (50ml – 250ml)(if stirred)
  2. 6 bladed pitch blade turbine (450ml & above)(if stirred)
  3. N.A. (if non stirred)
    Specially designed stirrer for holding corrosion test coupons which are electrically insulated & isolated for one other
Heating System
    Electrical ceramic band heater with ceramic wool insulation cladding
  1. Flame proof certified Aluminium cast heater
  2. SS-304 jacket for oil/steam heating
  3. External electrical heater on SS jacket with oil inside
Control Panel
  1. Compact SS control panel with microprocessor based programmable PID temperature controller cum indicator, variable motor speed drive & otherdigital indicators / controllers (as ordered) mounted on it
  1. Digital temperature indicator in flameproof enclosure with SS control panel mounted at a safe distance of 10m
  2. Flame proof Group IIA / IIB or IIC control panel
  3. Touch screen panel
  1. Table top (50ml – 250ml)
  2. SS Trolley (450ml & above)
  1. SS trolley (50ml – 2501ml)
  2. SS table top (upto 2lit)
  3. Floor stand model for all sizes

Gas Pressure Regulator

Gas Pressure Regulator thumb

To manually charge different gases at desired pressure upto 140 bar (Kg/cm2) / 2000 psi or higher into the reactor from gas

cylinder. Nitrogen, Oxygen & Hydrogen can be charged through same regulator (with special adaptor). Regulator for other gases like NH3,

CO2 etc. can also be offered. The regulator comes with inlet-outlet pressure gauges & SS braided teflon high pressure hose pipe (4m


Gas Booster

Gas Booster thumb

Gas boosters are useful when the cylinder pressures are much lower than the autoclave rated pressures. In such case the booster takes gas

at lower pressure from cylinder & compresses the same to deliver at higher pressures upto 5000 psig. They are generally pneumatically operated. Special

gas booster pumps are available for liquid CO2 used in supercritical Fluid Extraction System. The booster systems are supplied with air filter

regulator, pressure relief valves, inlet-outlet pressure gauges & valves.

Thermal gas mass flow meter/controller

MFC thumb

Thermal Mass Flow Meters (MFM) can be used to measure the accurate mass flow rate of gas (in gm/hr or LPH) & totalised quantity of

mass/volume (in gms/ltr.) charged in autoclave at any point. Mass flow controller (MFC) is used to charge the set flow rate of gas into the autoclave at

high pressures up to 350 bar (Kg/cm2) or it can be used in pressure control mode to indicate the gas flow & total gas uptake to maintain

desired set pressure inside the autoclave (ideal for hydrogenation). The same MFM / MFC can be used for multiple gases by just entering the conversion

factor for different gas densities provided the gases are inert to each other. The MFM/MFC comes with high pressure flexible hose, inlet filter with digital

gas flow indicator cum totalizer & additional pressure PID controller with pressure sensor if the MFC is used in pressure control mode. User has to

specify the max. flow rate range, pressure, gas & mode (flow control or pressure control) for ordering MFM/MFC. Optionally MFM/MFC certified for use in

zone 1 hazardous area offered on request.

Coriolis Gas-Liquid Mass Flow Meter/Controller


These are used for higher & accurate gas or liquid flow rate indication or control where thermal mass flow meters are not suitable.

Common meter can be used for all the gases & liquids with only change in pressure drops and flow rate ranges.

Digital Pressure Indicator / Controller

DPI thumb

It consists of SS316 pressure sensor (transmitter) & digital pressure indicator/ controller (mounted on common control panel) with

pressure alarm & optionally heater cut off for safety. Digital pressure indicator has pressure reading in bar & psi, where as controller reads any

one of the units. The controller is normally used with mass flow controller (MFC) or solenoid/flow control valve to maintain constant pressure inside the

autoclave. With MFC, gas flow indicator & totalizer are also provided on the same panel. The pressure sensor has temperature limitation upto 80°C &

hence the same is provided with water cooling jacket. Optionally intrinsically safe pressure sensor with IIC certification is provided. Pressure sensors

with Hastelloy C / Inconel wetted parts can be offered on request.

Liquid / Slurry / Gas Charging High Pressure Pot

Gas charging pot 1 thumb

It is used to transfer liquid or gases in to the autoclave under pressure. It consists of high pressure SS-316 pot designed for working

pressure 100 bar (kg/cm2) or higher with port for Nitrogen gas (N2), liquid / slurry inlet, outlet, pressure gauge, pressure safety

valve, high pressure hose & NRV. The liquid to be charged is fed into the pot from top funnel & pressurized with N2 gas until its

pressure is higher than the autoclave pressure & then under pressure the liquid is charged into the autoclave. The quantity & rate of flow of liquid

charged is not known precisely in this system. However a level indicator or sight glass or weighing balance or flow meter can be provided optionally to

measure the liquid charged or it’s flow rate. Pots of different pressure, M.O.C. & sizes can be offered. These pots can also be used for storage of

gases when gas cylinders are far off. With this option approximate quantity or flow of gas consumed can also be determined by measuring the pressure drop.
Sizes: ½ ltr., 1 ltr., 2 ltrs., 5 ltrs., 10 ltrs.

Ethylene Oxide Pot

Ethylene Oxide Pot thumb

It consists of SS 316 ethylene oxide (EO) horizontal pot with inlet, outlet, gas inlet with dip tube, thermowell, pressure gauge &

high pressure hose pipe for 10 bar (kg/cm2) working pressure. It is used for ethoxylation. It can be supplied with flame proof weighing balance

to measure the quantity of EO charged.
Sizes: 2 ltrs. & 5 ltrs.

Liquid Metering Pump System

Liquid Metering Pump System thumb

This system is used to charge the liquid at desired rate from as low as 1 ml/hr. to 100 ltr./hr, when the autoclave is under pressurized

condition. The system comes with metering pump, flow indicator, controller, liquid sump, pressure gauge, strainer, high pressure hose. Optionally pressure

safety valve, flow totalizer is also provided. AMAR offers 2 types of pumps.

  1. Low cost diaphragm pumps for pressures upto 100 bar & min. flow range of 60-600 ml/hr. to max. 10-100 ltrs./hr. The flow rates arevaried by varying the motor speed with variable frequency drive.
  2. High pressure more accurate HPLC type low flow metering pumps for high pressures upto 350 bar & flow range from 0.01 upto 100ml/min. These pumps can be used along with precision weighing scales to measure the total liquid charged at any point of time.

Optionally, in line flow meters can be connected to measure the actual flow of the liquids.

Auto Cooling System

Autocooling thumb

The system is useful to control temperatures overshoot for highly exothermic / runaway reactions & for faster cooling after the

reaction is over.
The control panel of the autoclave gives 230V, 1Ø output to connect external auto-cooling system. AMAR gives 2 options:

  1. Solenoid valve, flameproof IIC (for autoclaves upto 25 ltrs.) or
  2. Pneumatically actuated ball valves (for autoclaves above 25 ltrs. ) connected at the inlet of the internal cooling coil with externalsource of water supply. This is standard for 50 ml – 250 ml autoclaves, however for bigger autoclaves if the cold water line pressure is < 2 bar then itis better to opt for external pump & tank water cooling system. Normal tap water cooling is not effective at higher temperatures due to steam backpressure whereas pump & tank autocooling system gives positive pressure & faster cooling.
  3. Pump & Water Cooling Tank: It consists of a SS 304 water tank & pump to circulate water in the internal cooling coil ofreactors. Cooling starts automatically if the rate of heating rises suddenly. It comes with non FLP / FLP monoblock pump tank, pipeline & flexible hosepipes with QRC & is mounted on the autoclave trolley itself. It can also be used to circulate water in the cooling coil of external aluminum cast heaterwhen internal coil is not possible. Ice can be put in the water or the hot water can be discharged & fresh water replenished on continuous basis formore effective and faster cooling.

Low Temperature Cooling circulator

Low temp cooling circulator thumb

It is used to reduce the autoclave temperature to as low as upto -50°C from room temperature to carry out reactions at lower temperatures

by circulating thermic fluid in the internal cooling coil / jacket of autoclave. It consists of single/double stage compressors, condenser, circulation pump

& temperature controller for thermic fluid & reactor. The system can be with bath or closed loop bathless type for efficient & faster heat


Thermic Fluid Heating circulator

Thermic Fluid Heating Circulator thumb

It is opted only if heating is jacket type & the area is totally flameproof or direct electric band heaters are not permissible.

Heating can be done by circulating hot thermic fluid through the jacket of the autoclave. The system comes with SS tank, electric heaters, level switch,

pump for thermic fluid & reactor. The heating system is non flame proof & can be kept at a distance in safe area, if the reactor is in flame proof

area. The system can be with bath or closed loop bathless type for efficient & faster heat transfer. Open bath system can be offered upto max. 150°C

inside the reactor (due to fuming of thermic fluid) & are available upto 25 ltrs. autoclaves only, whereas closed loop systems can be offer upto 250°C

inside the reactor & upto 1000 ltrs. volume.

Common single fluid Heating & Cooling circulator

src=”” alt=”Common heating fluid heating
cooling circulator thumb” width=”200″ height=”150″ />

If heating & cooling both are to be done by circulating thermic fluid through reactor jacket then, common single fluid heating &

cooling system (open bath/closed loop) for temperatures from -50 to 200°C inside the reactor can be offered. Open bath system can be offered upto max. 150°C

inside the reactor (due to fuming of thermic fluid) & are available upto 25 ltrs. autoclaves only, whereas closed loop systems can be offer upto 250°C

inside the reactor & upto 1000 ltrs. volume.
Note: All the above systems are supplied with 6 ft flexible insulated hose & optionally suitable thermic fluid.

Flow Control Valves

Flow control valves thumb

These valves can be connected at jacket inlet for controlling flow of steam/ hot oil/ water for temperature control from PID or at the

inlet or outlet of the autoclaves for pressure control. Amar gives 2 options.

  1. On/off pneumatic ball valve actuated by 230V output from panel to FLP IIC solenoid valve inline of air supply
  2. Pneumatic proportionate flow control valves with I to P converter (for accurate temperature / pressure control).

Reflux Condenser

Reflux Condenser thumb

It is a jacketed tube SS-316 (0.01m2, 0.02m2 or 0.05m2 area) heat exchanger used to reflux the

condensate back into the reactor & vent off the uncondensed vapours. It is connected directly on the autoclave lid & works under full autoclave

pressure. Reflux condensers can be offered in different MOC & area.


Condenser thumb

It is a SS-316 shell & tube reverse flow heat exchanger for distillation/condensing the vent vapours from the autoclave upto

10Kg/cm2 pressure. It can be offered in all different MOC, higher pressure & different surface areas such as 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 & 2

m2. The condensate can be collected separately in receiver or optionally refluxed back into the reactor.

Receiver Pot

Receiver Pot thumb

SS 316 receiver pot can be connected at the outlet of the shell & tube or Reflux condenser to collect the condensate separately. It

is also provided with port to apply vacuum & offered in 250 ml, ½ ltr., 1 ltr., 2 ltrs. & 5 ltrs. sizes. Higher sizes & other MOC can be offered

on special request. It can be optionally provided with level indication.

Back Pressure Regulator

Back pressure regulator thumb

It is mounted on the vent line of the autoclave & is used for maintaining constant pressure inside the autoclave. The pressure is

maintained by releasing the excess pressure into the atmosphere or through a hose to safe area. The pressure can be set initially on the gauge, by manually

varying the knob until the gas comes out. Once the set pressure is exceeded the excess pressure is released until the autoclave pressure becomes equal to or

below the set pressure. The pressure release is slow & gradual & the set pressure can be varied at any point. Alternately electronic digital back

pressure regulator can be offered on request, where the pressure is set digitally & can be released at preset rate of pressure release.

Pressure Safety Valve

Pressure safety valve thumb

High pressure autoclaves are provided with built in safety rupture disc, however additional safety can be offered by providing pressure

safety valve whose release pressure can be set manually for a wide range by increasing or decreasing the spring tension. The set pressure should normally be

around the max. allowable working pressure. Safety relief valves are standard supply for glass, rocker & fabricated reactors where rupture discs are not

available for low pressure. These valves come with PTFE / Viton orings which may not be suitable for certain gases & solvents.

Chain pulley lifting system

Chain pulley lifting system thumb

For autoclave sizes from 10 ltrs. to 250 ltrs. the head & vessel are too heavy to lift manually. Hence chainpulley block mounted on

same trolley with SS Stand can be offered for lifting the head with minimum efforts. Electric chainpulley hoists can be offered on request.

SCADA Software for Remote Operation & Recording

Scada software thumb

SCADA is a supervisory control & data acquisition software with all controllers / indicators having RS485 modbus communication port

or PLC & HMI, for online display, set point changes & data logging of pressure, temp., Motor RPM, motor torque % & optionally liquid / gas flow

rate with totaliser, heater temperature etc. remotely from PC as well as locally from panel. It gives continuous online data logging at predefined variable

time interval, online graphical representation as well as historical data & graphs on PC for single or multiple autoclaves. RS 485-232 convertor &

cable upto 10m or higher is also supplied. Wireless data communication from PC to panel can be supplied on request.


Liners thumb

Removable Teflon / Metal / Glass liners can be offered for autoclaves from 100 ml – 5 ltrs. size. These liners can be used for reactions

that are corrosive, to prevent only the autoclave body from corrosion. Teflon & glass liners can be used upto 200°C, metal upto 500°C. The heat transfer

is also very poor with teflon liners. Hence, Amar recommends the use of complete corrosion resistance metal autoclaves made from special alloys like

Hastelloy, Inconel, Titanium etc. over glass/teflon liners. Liners should be used only if cost is the constraint or corrosive chemicals are to be used

sparingly. Metal liners can be offered in Hastelloy C, Inconel, Monel, Nickel, Titanium etc.

Catalyst Basket

Catalyst Basket thumb

It is provided to improve the efficiency of the catalysts & for holding the catalyst so that it will not be destroyed or changed by

the stirring action of impeller. The baskets are made from SS wire mesh & connected to the stirrer so that it rotates with the stirrer. It is available

for 450 ml – 100 ltrs. Autoclave. The catalyst basket can be static which is stationary & dynamic which rotates with the impeller.

Catalyst Filters

Catalyst Filters thumb

These are small 7 microns sintered cup filters which are threaded to bottom of the sampling dip tube so that while sampling liquid, the

catalyst does not come out. It is very useful when the catalyst is normally very expensive or pyrophoric. These filters may reduce the rate/ flow of the

sampling liquid due to the resistance offered by the fine mesh, hence they need regular cleaning to prevent choking. Filters are available for 450 ml – 100

ltrs. autoclaves. These filters are available in SS 316 & Hastelloy C.

Catalyst Addition Device

Catalyst addition device thumb

It is used for one time catalyst charging under pressure during the reaction. It consists of a 3 ml to 150 ml (depending on Autoclave

size) small container with airtight cap, that is openable. The powder is filled in the container which is then threaded to the autoclave head from below to

a separate port with needle valve on the top. Under atmospheric & pressurized conditions the powder remains inside the container as the cap remains

closed. One has to apply gas pressure greater than autoclave pressure from the needle valve on that port so that the cap opens & releases the catalyst

inside the autoclave under pressure. Depending on the optional accessories selected, sometimes the catalyst addition device may not be possible due to space

constraint on the head. Available for autoclave sizes 100 ml – 100 ltrs. & upto 250°C.

Catalyst filtration & recycling system

Catalyst filtration and recycling system thumb

It consists of vertical SS sintered filter cartridges in a SS housing. After the batch is over the reactor liquid is transferred to the

catalyst filter under reactor/nitrogen pressure. After the filtration is over, the catalyst is taken back in to the reactor by back washing, thus recycling

the same & making it available for the next batch. Generally this system is suitable & available for 10L & above reactor volumes.

Catalyst Slurry Charging System

Catalyst slurry charging system thumb

It is a pressure reactor with magnetic drive stirring, inlet & outlet valves, pressure gauge & nitrogen/vent. Solvent &

catalyst are charged in the vessel & the slurry formed by mixing is transferred under nitrogen pressure into the reactor. The pressure rating &

volume of this system is designed depending on the volume of catalyst, pressure & temperature rating of the autoclave.
This system is suitable for 50L & above reactor volume.

Catch Pot

Catch pot thumb

It is used to collect the vent vapours / gases from the autoclave vent / rupture disc / safety valve port, when the vapour / gas is

highly hazardous to release directly into the atmosphere.
It is a pressure vessel, taken almost double the volume of the autoclave & designed for less than half the reactor working pressure. It is provided with

inlet, outlet, vent, pressure gauge, safety valve & optionally a frame arrestor. It is normally filled with water. The gases / vapours collected are

safely released through the flame arrestor to avoid any hazard. It is suitable & available for autoclaves from 10 ltrs. to 1000 ltrs.

Vacuum Pump

vacuum pump thumb

Suitable rotary vane or diaphragm vacuum pumps can be supplied for vacuum from 700mm of Hg upto 10-3 mm of Hg in the reactor

depending on the pump type selected. It is used either before starting the batch or for high vacuum distillation. Suitable analogue or digital vacuum

indicator with controller can be offered on request.

Level transmitter / pH / turbidity / DO / ORP / IR / Torque sensor

Lvel trans thumb

  1. Level transmitter / switch / indicator to measure or maintain level inside the reactor unique high pressure.
  2. pH / turbidity / DO / ORP / sensors with indicators & controllers for high pressure & temperature application.
  3. Torque sensor for accurate measurement of the motor torque, where change in torque indicates change in viscosity of the reaction.

Baffles / View windows / Sampling pot

pH turbidity thumb

  1. Removable internal baffles for better stirring (but cooling coil has to be removed in small autoclaves).
  2. Quartz / sapphire view glass windows in jacketed vessels to see the reaction.
  3. Sampling pot with condenser for cooling / condensing & collecting the sample taken at high pressure & temperature.

Note: All accessories may not be available for all models


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Autoclaves for Corrosion Testing

Autoclaves for Corrosion Testing

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