Glass Autoclaves

Glass Autoclaves

glass autoclaves

glass body autoclave with bottom electrical heater, glass pressure reactors

glass pressure reactors, jacketed stirred autoclave

Our Glass Body Autoclaves / Reactors are useful when one has to see the reaction under pressure and temperature. With PEEK / PTFE coating it is economical option when media inside are acidic chemicals, corrosive to SS316 or no metal is permitted. Our Glass Autoclaves / Reactors are also used in Reaction Calorimeter. For safety the reactor comes with polycarbonate transparent cover, provided from all 4 sides of glass vessels for safety in case of breakage due to accidental over pressure.


Some of the basic features of glass autoclaves

  • Ideal for corrosive applications and to view the reaction
  • Glass autoclaves pressures upto 6 bar
  • 100 ml to 2 ltrs. volume
  • Material of construction (MOC): Glass with SS316 / Peek / PFA coating / Hastelloy B/C / Monel / Inconel / Nickel / Titanium / Tantalum / Zirconium etc.
  • High torque zero leakage magnetic drive coupling
  • Fully automated PC controlled high pressure system / pilot plant to continuously monitor, control & record various parameters like temperature, pressure, motor speed, gas / liquid flow, level, pH, turbidity, torque etc.
  • Polycarbonate transparent cover is provided from all 4 sides of glass vessel for safety.

Standard models for glass autoclaves

Description 100 ml volume 500 ml volume 1L volume 2L volume
Model No. G 1360 G 1370 G 2160 G 2170 G 2360 G 2370 G 2460 G 2470
Design Pressure 6 bar 10 bar 6 bar 10 bar 6 bar 10 bar 6 bar 10 bar
Design Temperature 150 C (option up to 200°C in Jacketed glass vessel)
Vessel I/D 40 mm 75mm 101.6
Vessel Internal Height 83 mm 118 mm 163 mm 303 mm
Min. Stirrable Volume 20ml 60ml 130ml 303ml

Technical Specification for glass autoclaves standard models

Sr. Description Specifications
A Material of Construction Borosilicate glass cylinder with other wetted parts of SS 316
B. Head Mounting Style Removable head and vessel design
C. Heating Style Electrical plate heater from bottom
D Motor 1⁄8 hp AC motor with 100-1450 RPM (100 ml)
1⁄4 hp AC motor with 100-1450 RPM (500 ml to 2 L)
E Shaft Sealing Zero leakage magnetic drive coupling M 8 with 0.8 Nm torque (100 ml), Zero leakage magnetic drive coupling M20 with 20 Nm torque (500 ml to 2 L)
F Stirrer 4 bladed turbine stirrer (100 ml)

2 stage 6 bladed turbine stirrer (500 ml to 2 L)

G. Standard Nozzles, Valves
& Fittings
External Valves & Fittings:
Pressure gauge, safety rupture disc, gas inlet and liquid sampling needlevalve with common dip tube, vent needle valve, solenoid valve at inlet of cooling coil (100 ml)Internal Fittings:Serpentine cooling coil (100 ml), Helical cooling coil (500 ml to 2 L), diptube, thermowell with RTD PT 100 sensor
Internal Fittings:
Serpentine cooling coil (100 ml), Helical cooling coil (500 ml to 2 L), diptube, thermowell with RTD PT 100 sensor
F Gasket PTFE
H Control Panel SS control panel with programmable PID temperature controller and variable frequency drive for motor speed control
I Power Supply 1 Ø, 220 V AC, 50 / 60 Hz
J Mounting &
Mounting Reactor Volume Approx. Dimensions
in (mm) (W X D X H)
SS Table
100ml 300 X 300 X 770
500 ml 320 X 300 X 700
1L 380 X 310 X 910
2L 380 X 310 X 1050
4 X 450 ml 1200 X 320 X 570

Note: For table top models control panel size is 300 mm X 300 mm X 300 mm (W X D X H)

Ordering guide for glass autoclave customized models

Ordering Code structure is G Model no-A-B-C-D1-D2-D3-E-F-I-J-K-L where A, B, C, D1, D2, D3, E, F, I, J, K & L
options can be selected from below tables. The below options will be in place of standard supply.

A Material of Construction(internal wetted parts)
Hastelloy C 276 HC6
Hastelloy B HAB
Monel 400 MN4
Inconel 600 IN6
Nickel 200 NK2
Titanium Gr. 2 T12
Zirconium ZR7
Tantalum TAN
B – Head Mounting Style
Fixed head with pneumatic vessel raising lowering (10 L to 25 L) K
Fixed head with manual vessel raising lowering & tilting (450 ml) KT
Fixed head with pneumatic vessel raising lowering(450 ml to 2 L) P
Fixed head with pneumatic vessel raising lowering & tilting (450 ml to 2 L) PT
C – Heating Style
Jacketed glass vessel (up to 200°C) EJ
Triple walled double jacket glass vessel for heating & vacuum insulation without pressure (up to 200°C) ET
D1 -Motor HP
 1⁄4 hp (for 100 ml) M02
 1⁄2 hp (for 450 ml to 2 L)  M05
D3 Motor Type
Ex-proof gas group IIB (Zone 1) XB
4 Nm M40
8 Nmp M80
D2 Motor RPM
Up to 3000 rpm RT
Gear box up to 440 rpm (for 450 ml to 2 L) R4
E – Motor Type
 Ex-proof gas group IIB (Zone 1)  XB
 Ex-proof gas group IIC (Zone 1)  XC
Ex-proof CE Atex certified II 2G Ex de IIC T4  AZ
Ex-proof CSA certified Class 1 Div 2 group A, B, C, D CD
1⁄8 hp compact in line brushless DC motor BD
1⁄4 hp compact in line brushless DC motor B2
F – Stirrer Options
Hollow shaft with gas induction Impeller SH
Anchor (Serpentine cooling coil, max 100 rpm) SA
Spiral (No cooling coil, max 100 rpm) SS
Ruston turbine SR
Paddle SD
Propeller SP
J – Control Panel
Touch screen TSP
K – Power Supply
1 Ø, 110 V AC, 50 / 60 Hz S1
L- Interchangeable Metal Autoclave
Interchangeable metal vessel of same volume up to 100 bar & 250°C IM

K- Mounting & Overall Dimensions
Mounting Autoclave Volume Autoclave with control panel approx. dimensions (WXDXH) in mm Code
Trolley 100 ml 1010 X 410 X 1450 FS
450 ml 1010 X 410 X 1450
1 Liter 1040 X 410 X 1660
2 Liter 1040 X 410 X 1800

Note: 1) For other optional accessories please refer page no. –
2) All above options may not be available / possible with all models.
3) Customization of volume, material, pressure, temperature etc. may be possible on request.


Gas Pressure Regulator

Gas Pressure Regulator thumb

To manually charge different gases at desired pressure upto 140 bar (Kg/cm2) / 2000 psi or higher into the reactor from gas cylinder. Nitrogen, Oxygen & Hydrogen can be charged through same regulator (with special adaptor). Regulator for other gases like NH3, CO2 etc. can also be offered. The regulator comes with inlet-outlet pressure gauges & SS braided teflon high pressure hose pipe (4m long).

Gas Booster

Gas Booster thumb

Gas boosters are useful when the cylinder pressures are much lower than the autoclave rated pressures. In such case the booster takes gas at lower pressure from cylinder & compresses the same to deliver at higher pressures upto 5000 psig. They are generally pneumatically operated. Special gas booster pumps are available for liquid CO2 used in supercritical Fluid Extraction System. The booster systems are supplied with air filter regulator, pressure relief valves, inlet-outlet pressure gauges & valves.

Thermal gas mass flow meter/controller

MFC thumb

Thermal Mass Flow Meters (MFM) can be used to measure the accurate mass flow rate of gas (in gm/hr or LPH) & totalised quantity of mass/volume (in gms/ltr.) charged in autoclave at any point. Mass flow controller (MFC) is used to charge the set flow rate of gas into the autoclave at high pressures up to 350 bar (Kg/cm2) or it can be used in pressure control mode to indicate the gas flow & total gas uptake to maintain desired set pressure inside the autoclave (ideal for hydrogenation). The same MFM / MFC can be used for multiple gases by just entering the conversion factor for different gas densities provided the gases are inert to each other. The MFM/MFC comes with high pressure flexible hose, inlet filter with digital gas flow indicator cum totalizer & additional pressure PID controller with pressure sensor if the MFC is used in pressure control mode. User has to specify the max. flow rate range, pressure, gas & mode (flow control or pressure control) for ordering MFM/MFC. Optionally MFM/MFC certified for use in zone 1 hazardous area offered on request.

Coriolis Gas-Liquid Mass Flow Meter/Controller

Coriolis MFC thumb

These are used for higher & accurate gas or liquid flow rate indication or control where thermal mass flow meters are not suitable. Common meter can be used for all the gases & liquids with only change in pressure drops and flow rate ranges.

Digital Pressure Indicator / Controller

DPI thumb

It consists of SS316 pressure sensor (transmitter) & digital pressure indicator/ controller (mounted on common control panel) with pressure alarm & optionally heater cut off for safety. Digital pressure indicator has pressure reading in bar & psi, where as controller reads any one of the units. The controller is normally used with mass flow controller (MFC) or solenoid/flow control valve to maintain constant pressure inside the autoclave. With MFC, gas flow indicator & totalizer are also provided on the same panel. The pressure sensor has temperature limitation upto 80°C & hence the same is provided with water cooling jacket. Optionally intrinsically safe pressure sensor with IIC certification is provided. Pressure sensors with Hastelloy C / Inconel wetted parts can be offered on request.

Liquid / Slurry / Gas Charging High Pressure Pot

Gas charging pot 1 thumb

It is used to transfer liquid or gases in to the autoclave under pressure. It consists of high pressure SS-316 pot designed for working pressure 100 bar (kg/cm2) or higher with port for Nitrogen gas (N2), liquid / slurry inlet, outlet, pressure gauge, pressure safety valve, high pressure hose & NRV. The liquid to be charged is fed into the pot from top funnel & pressurized with N2 gas until its pressure is higher than the autoclave pressure & then under pressure the liquid is charged into the autoclave. The quantity & rate of flow of liquid charged is not known precisely in this system. However a level indicator or sight glass or weighing balance or flow meter can be provided optionally to measure the liquid charged or it’s flow rate. Pots of different pressure, M.O.C. & sizes can be offered. These pots can also be used for storage of gases when gas cylinders are far off. With this option approximate quantity or flow of gas consumed can also be determined by measuring the pressure drop.
Sizes: ½ ltr., 1 ltr., 2 ltrs., 5 ltrs., 10 ltrs.

Ethylene Oxide Pot

Ethylene Oxide Pot thumb

It consists of SS 316 ethylene oxide (EO) horizontal pot with inlet, outlet, gas inlet with dip tube, thermowell, pressure gauge & high pressure hose pipe for 10 bar (kg/cm2) working pressure. It is used for ethoxylation. It can be supplied with flame proof weighing balance to measure the quantity of EO charged.
Sizes: 2 ltrs. & 5 ltrs.

Liquid Metering Pump System

Liquid Metering Pump System thumb

This system is used to charge the liquid at desired rate from as low as 1 ml/hr. to 100 ltrs./hr, when the autoclave is under pressurized condition. The system comes with metering pump, flow indicator, controller, liquid sump, pressure gauge, strainer, high pressure hose. Optionally pressure safety valve, flow totalizer is also provided. AMAR offers 2 types of pumps.

  1. Low cost diaphragm pumps for pressures upto 100 bar & min. flow range of 60 – 600 ml/hr. to max. 10-100 ltrs./hr. The flow rates are varied by varying the motor speed with variable frequency drive.
  2. High pressure more accurate HPLC type low flow metering pumps for high pressures upto 350 bar & flow range from 0.01 upto 100 ml/min. These pumps can be used along with precision weighing scales to measure the total liquid charged at any point of time.

Optionally, in line flow meters can be connected to measure the actual flow of the liquids.

Auto Cooling System

Autocooling thumb

The system is useful to control temperatures overshoot for highly exothermic / runaway reactions & for faster cooling after the reaction is over.
The control panel of the autoclave gives 230V, 1Ø output to connect external auto-cooling system. AMAR gives 2 options:

  1. Solenoid valve, flameproof IIC (for autoclaves upto 25 ltrs.) or
  2. Pneumatically actuated ball valves (for autoclaves above 25 ltrs. ) connected at the inlet of the internal cooling coil with external source of water supply. This is standard for 50 ml – 250 ml autoclaves, however for bigger autoclaves if the cold water line pressure is < 2 bar then it is better to opt for external pump & tank water cooling system. Normal tap water cooling is not effective at higher temperatures due to steam back pressure whereas pump & tank autocooling system gives positive pressure & faster cooling.
  3. Pump & Water Cooling Tank: It consists of a SS 304 water tank & pump to circulate water in the internal cooling coil of reactors. Cooling starts automatically if the rate of heating rises suddenly. It comes with non FLP / FLP monoblock pump tank, pipeline & flexible hose pipes with QRC & is mounted on the autoclave trolley itself. It can also be used to circulate water in the cooling coil of external aluminum cast heater when internal coil is not possible. Ice can be put in the water or the hot water can be discharged & fresh water replenished on continuous basis for more effective and faster cooling.

Low Temperature Cooling circulator

Low temp cooling circulator thumb

It is used to reduce the autoclave temperature to as low as upto -50°C from room temperature to carry out reactions at lower temperatures by circulating thermic fluid in the internal cooling coil / jacket of autoclave. It consists of single/double stage compressors, condenser, circulation pump & temperature controller for thermic fluid & reactor. The system can be with bath or closed loop bathless type for efficient & faster heat transfer.

Thermic Fluid Heating circulator

Thermic Fluid Heating Circulator thumb

It is opted only if heating is jacket type & the area is totally flameproof or direct electric band heaters are not permissible. Heating can be done by circulating hot thermic fluid through the jacket of the autoclave. The system comes with SS tank, electric heaters, level switch, pump for thermic fluid & reactor. The heating system is non flame proof & can be kept at a distance in safe area, if the reactor is in flame proof area. The system can be with bath or closed loop bathless type for efficient & faster heat transfer. Open bath system can be offered upto max. 150°C inside the reactor (due to fuming of thermic fluid) & are available upto 25 ltrs. autoclaves only, whereas closed loop systems can be offer upto 250°C inside the reactor & upto 1000 ltrs. volume.

Common single fluid Heating & Cooling circulator

Common heating fluid heating cooling circulator thumb

If heating & cooling both are to be done by circulating thermic fluid through reactor jacket then, common single fluid heating & cooling system (open bath/closed loop) for temperatures from -50 to 200°C inside the reactor can be offered. Open bath system can be offered upto max. 150°C inside the reactor (due to fuming of thermic fluid) & are available upto 25 ltrs. autoclaves only, whereas closed loop systems can be offer upto 250°C inside the reactor & upto 1000 ltrs. volume.
Note: All the above systems are supplied with 6 ft flexible insulated hose & optionally suitable thermic fluid.

Flow Control Valves

Flow control valves thumb

These valves can be connected at jacket inlet for controlling flow of steam/ hot oil/ water for temperature control from PID or at the inlet or outlet of the autoclaves for pressure control. Amar gives 2 options.

  1. On/off pneumatic ball valve actuated by 230V output from panel to FLP IIC solenoid valve inline of air supply
  2. Pneumatic proportionate flow control valves with I to P converter (for accurate temperature / pressure control).

Reflux Condenser

Reflux Condenser thumb

It is a jacketed tube SS-316 (0.01m2, 0.02m2 or 0.05m2 area) heat exchanger used to reflux the condensate back into the reactor & vent off the uncondensed vapours. It is connected directly on the autoclave lid & works under full autoclave pressure. Reflux condensers can be offered in different MOC & area.


Condenser thumb

It is a SS-316 shell & tube reverse flow heat exchanger for distillation/condensing the vent vapours from the autoclave upto 10Kg/cm2 pressure. It can be offered in all different MOC, higher pressure & different surface areas such as 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 & 2 m2. The condensate can be collected separately in receiver or optionally refluxed back into the reactor.

Receiver Pot

Receiver Pot thumb

SS 316 receiver pot can be connected at the outlet of the shell & tube or Reflux condenser to collect the condensate separately. It is also provided with port to apply vacuum & offered in 250 ml, ½ ltr., 1 ltr., 2 ltrs. & 5 ltrs. sizes. Higher sizes & other MOC can be offered on special request. It can be optionally provided with level indication.

Back Pressure Regulator

Back pressure regulator thumb

It is mounted on the vent line of the autoclave & is used for maintaining constant pressure inside the autoclave. The pressure is maintained by releasing the excess pressure into the atmosphere or through a hose to safe area. The pressure can be set initially on the gauge, by manually varying the knob until the gas comes out. Once the set pressure is exceeded the excess pressure is released until the autoclave pressure becomes equal to or below the set pressure. The pressure release is slow & gradual & the set pressure can be varied at any point. Alternately electronic digital back pressure regulator can be offered on request, where the pressure is set digitally & can be released at preset rate of pressure release.

Pressure Safety Valve

Pressure safety valve thumb

High pressure autoclaves are provided with built in safety rupture disc, however additional safety can be offered by providing pressure safety valve whose release pressure can be set manually for a wide range by increasing or decreasing the spring tension. The set pressure should normally be around the max. allowable working pressure. Safety relief valves are standard supply for glass, rocker & fabricated reactors where rupture discs are not available for low pressure. These valves come with PTFE / Viton orings which may not be suitable for certain gases & solvents.

Chain pulley lifting system

Chain pulley lifting system thumb

For autoclave sizes from 10 ltrs. to 250 ltrs. the head & vessel are too heavy to lift manually. Hence chainpulley block mounted on same trolley with SS Stand can be offered for lifting the head with minimum efforts. Electric chainpulley hoists can be offered on request.

SCADA Software for Remote Operation & Recording

Scada software thumb

SCADA is a supervisory control & data acquisition software with all controllers / indicators having RS485 modbus communication port or PLC & HMI, for online display, set point changes & data logging of pressure, temp., Motor RPM, motor torque % & optionally liquid / gas flow rate with totaliser, heater temperature etc. remotely from PC as well as locally from panel. It gives continuous online data logging at predefined variable time interval, online graphical representation as well as historical data & graphs on PC for single or multiple autoclaves. RS 485-232 converter & cable upto 10m or higher is also supplied. Wireless data communication from PC to panel can be supplied on request.


Liners thumb

Removable Teflon / Metal / Glass liners can be offered for autoclaves from 100 ml – 5 ltrs. size. These liners can be used for reactions that are corrosive, to prevent only the autoclave body from corrosion. Teflon & glass liners can be used upto 200°C, metal upto 500°C. The heat transfer is also very poor with teflon liners. Hence, Amar recommends the use of complete corrosion resistance metal autoclaves made from special alloys like Hastelloy, Inconel, Titanium etc. over glass/teflon liners. Liners should be used only if cost is the constraint or corrosive chemicals are to be used sparingly. Metal liners can be offered in Hastelloy C, Inconel, Monel, Nickel, Titanium etc.

Catalyst Basket

Catalyst Basket thumb

It is provided to improve the efficiency of the catalysts & for holding the catalyst so that it will not be destroyed or changed by the stirring action of impeller. The baskets are made from SS wire mesh & connected to the stirrer so that it rotates with the stirrer. It is available for 450 ml – 100 ltrs. Autoclave. The catalyst basket can be static which is stationary & dynamic which rotates with the impeller.

Catalyst Filters

Catalyst Filters thumb

These are small 7 microns sintered cup filters which are threaded to bottom of the sampling dip tube so that while sampling liquid, the catalyst does not come out. It is very useful when the catalyst is normally very expensive or pyrophoric. These filters may reduce the rate/ flow of the sampling liquid due to the resistance offered by the fine mesh, hence they need regular cleaning to prevent choking. Filters are available for 450 ml- 100 ltrs. autoclaves. These filters are available in SS 316 & Hastelloy C.

Catalyst Addition Device

Catalyst addition device thumb

It is used for one time catalyst charging under pressure during the reaction. It consists of a 3 ml to 150 ml (depending on Autoclave size) small container with airtight cap, that is openable. The powder is filled in the container which is then threaded to the autoclave head from below to a separate port with needle valve on the top. Under atmospheric & pressurized conditions the powder remains inside the container as the cap remains closed. One has to apply gas pressure greater than autoclave pressure from the needle valve on that port so that the cap opens & releases the catalyst inside the autoclave under pressure. Depending on the optional accessories selected, sometimes the catalyst addition device may not be possible due to space constraint on the head. Available for autoclave sizes 100 ml – 100 ltrs. & upto 250°C.

Catalyst filtration & recycling system

Catalyst filtration and recycling system thumb

It consists of vertical SS sintered filter cartridges in a SS housing. After the batch is over the reactor liquid is transferred to the catalyst filter under reactor/nitrogen pressure. After the filtration is over, the catalyst is taken back in to the reactor by back washing, thus recycling the same & making it available for the next batch. Generally this system is suitable & available for 10L & above reactor volumes.

Catalyst Slurry Charging System

Catalyst slurry charging system thumb

It is a pressure reactor with magnetic drive stirring, inlet & outlet valves, pressure gauge & nitrogen/vent. Solvent & catalyst are charged in the vessel & the slurry formed by mixing is transferred under nitrogen pressure into the reactor. The pressure rating & volume of this system is designed depending on the volume of catalyst, pressure & temperature rating of the autoclave.
This system is suitable for 50L & above reactor volume.

Catch Pot

Catch pot thumb

It is used to collect the vent vapours / gases from the autoclave vent / rupture disc / safety valve port, when the vapour / gas is highly hazardous to release directly into the atmosphere.
It is a pressure vessel, taken almost double the volume of the autoclave & designed for less than half the reactor working pressure. It is provided with inlet, outlet, vent, pressure gauge, safety valve & optionally a frame arrestor. It is normally filled with water. The gases / vapours collected are safely released through the flame arrestor to avoid any hazard. It is suitable & available for autoclaves from 10 ltrs. to 1000 ltrs.

Vacuum Pump

vacuum pump thumb

Suitable rotary vane or diaphragm vacuum pumps can be supplied for vacuum from 700mm of Hg upto 10-3 mm of Hg in the reactor depending on the pump type selected. It is used either before starting the batch or for high vacuum distillation. Suitable analogue or digital vacuum indicator with controller can be offered on request.

Level transmitter / pH / turbidity / DO / ORP / IR / Torque sensor

Lvel trans thumb

  1. Level transmitter / switch / indicator to measure or maintain level inside the reactor unique high pressure.
  2. pH / turbidity / DO / ORP / sensors with indicators & controllers for high pressure & temperature application.
  3. Torque sensor for accurate measurement of the motor torque, where change in torque indicates change in viscosity of the reaction.

Baffles / View windows / Sampling pot

pH turbidity thumb

  1. Removable internal baffles for better stirring (but cooling coil has to be removed in small autoclaves).
  2. Quartz / sapphire view glass windows in jacketed vessels to see the reaction.
  3. Sampling pot with condenser for cooling / condensing & collecting the sample taken at high pressure & temperature.

All accessories may not be available for all models
All accessories design pressure is 10 bar.


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