Autoclave trolley 2

  • For chemical reactions like hydrogenation, oxidation, alkylation, chlorination. carboxylation, nitration, polymerization, amination, bromination,

    ethoxylation, esterification, sulphonation etc.

  • 50ml to 100lit volume
  • Pressures upto 350 bar & temperatures upto 500°C
  • Available in different Material of Constructions (MOC) like SS-316, SS-316L, Hastelloy B/C, Monel, Nickel, Inconel, Titanium, Tantalum, Zirconium
  • High torque zero leakage magnetic drive coupling
  • Ex-proof / CE / PED / ASME / UL / CSA certified systems on request.
  • Fully automated PC controlled high pressure system / pilot plant to continuously monitor, control & record various parameters like temperature,

    pressure, motor speed, gas / liquid flow, level, pH, ORP, DO, IR, turbidity, torque etc.

  1. 50ml, 100ml, 250ml, 450ml, 750ml, 1lit, 2lit, 5lit, 10lit, 20lit, 25lit, 50lit, 75lit, 100lit net filling capacity
  1. Other volumes can be customized, if possible
  2. Interchangeable stirred metal autoclave
Material of construction (MOC)
  1. SS-316
  1. SS-316L, Hastelloy B/C, Monel, Nickel, Inconel, Titanium, Tantalum, Zirconium etc.
  2. Interchangeable stirred metal & glass autoclave
Design Pressure
  1. 100 bar / 1450 psi
  1. 200 bar / 2900 psi (50ml – 25lit)
  2. 350 bar / 5000 psi. (50ml – 10lit)
Design Temperature
  1. 250°C (482°F)
  1. 350°C (662°F)
  2. 500°C (932°F) (50ml – 25lit)
Nozzles, Valves & Fittings
  1. Pressure gauge, vent needle valve, safety rupture disc, Internal cooling(Single tube in tube out type cooling pipe for 50ml / 100ml, Serpentine

    cooling coil for 250ml and helical cooling coil for 450ml to 100lit), thermowell (with RTD-PT-100 temp. sensor), gas inlet & liquid sampling needle

    valve with common dip tube (sparger)

  1. Ball valve for powder / liquid inlet, flush bottom valve, serpentine cooling coil (450ml – 100lit)
Body & Head Sealing
  1. Split clamp type quick opening system with clamp bolts & flat gasket
  1. Split taper clamp with bolts
  2. Split clamp with ‘O’ ring & without clamp bolts
  3. Threaded clamp & vessel with ‘O’ ring seal
  4. Nut & bolts with flange & gasket
  1. PTFE (upto 350°C)
  1. Metallic Grafoil (for temperature >350°C up to 500°C)
Head Mounting Style
  1. Removable head and vessel design
  1. Fixed head design with removable vessel & heater (manual)- for 50ml – 1lit size
  2. Fixed head design with removable vessel & heater (motorized) – for 450ml – 5lit size
Motor & Drive
  1. Non flame proof / Flameproof (Explosion proof) AC motor for Group IIA & IIB gases
  1. Flame proof CE-Atex certified for group IIC gases like H2
  2. Compact in line brushless DC motor (50ml – 25lit)
Stirrer RPM
  1. 100 – 1450 rpm variable speed (50ml – 5lit) 100 – 750 rpm (10lit – 100lit)
  1. 2900 rpm (Up to 5lit Autoclaves)
  2. 1450 rpm (for 10lit -100lit)
Shaft Sealing
  1. Zero leakage Magnetic Drive coupling
  1. N.A.
  1. 4 bladed pitch blade turbine (50ml – 250ml)
  2. 6 bladed pitch blade turbine (450ml – 100lit)
  1. Hollow shaft with gas induction Impeller, propeller, anchor, spiral, ruston turbine, paddle & special designed stirrer for highly viscous


Heating System
  1. Electrical ceramic band heater with ceramic wool insulation cladding
  1. Flame proof certified Aluminum cast heater
  2. SS – 304 Jacket for oil / steam heating
  3. External electrical heater on SS jacket with oil inside
Control Panel
  1. Compact SS – control Panel with microprocessor based programmable PID temperature controller cum indicator, variable motor speed drive &

    other digital indicators/ controllers (as ordered) mounted on it

  1. Digital temperature indicator in flameproof enclosure with SS control panel mounted at a safe distance of 10m
  2. Flame proof Group IIA / IIB or IIC control panel.
  3. Touch screen panel
Power Supply
  1. 1Ø, 220 V AC, 50 Hz / 60 Hz
  2. 3Ø, 400 V AC, 50 Hz / 60 Hz
  1. 1Ø, 110 V AC, 60 Hz
  2. 3Ø, 230 V AC, 60 Hz
  1. Table top (50ml – 250ml)
  2. SS trolley (450ml – 100lit)
  1. SS trolley (50ml – 250ml)
  2. SS table top (upto 2lit)
  3. Floor stand model for all sizes

Technical Specifications

Minimum stirrable
Vessel I/D
Vessel internal
height (mm)
AC Motor
Overall dimensions table top/floor stand
model without panel* W X D X H (mm)
Overall dimensions trolley
model W X D X H (mm)
Powder / liquid inlet size (inch)Flush bottom
valve dia (mm)
150ml20ml40631/40.4275 X 230 X 7801010 X 410 X 1300N.A.8
2100ml20ml40831/40.4275 X 230 X 7801010 X 410 X 1300N.A.8
3250ml50ml65801/40.5275 X 230 X 7801010 X 410 X 1300N.A.8
4450ml60ml751181/40.8320 X 270 X 9001010 X 410 X 13401/4”10
5750ml60ml751931/41.25320 X 270 X 9801010 X 410 X 13401/4”10
61lit130ml101.61631/41.5355 X 310 X 9251010 X 410 X 13501/4”10
72lit130ml101.63031/41.75355 X 310 X 10651010 X 410 X 13501/4”10
85lit360ml1523101/42.5420 X 355 X 13501010 X 410 X 13501/4”10
910lit1lit1834001/23.5585 X 560 X 15501310 X 585 X 15501/2”15
1020lit2.6lit2484951/25585 X 560 X 18501310 X 585 X 18503/4”15
1125lit2.6lit2485951/25585 X 560 X 19501310 X 585 X 19503/4”15
1250lit6lit355/343558/600110.5675 X 675 X 23501500 X 675 X 23501”25
1375lit8lit396/384600/650112725 X 725 X 23501500 X 725 X 23501”25
14100lit12lit456/440699/735113.5780 X 780 X 23501550 X 780 X 23501”25
  • Panel size is 300 X 300 X 300mm (for standard single phase with temperature, RPM and pressure controllers) and 500(W) X 370(D) X 345(H) mm (for

    standard three phase with temperature, RPM and pressure controllers), for other accessories it may change.

  • The dimensions are for table top models upto 2lit & floor stand models from 5lit to 100lit


  • The above specifications are for design pressure of 100 bar (except 50lit to 100lit is for 50 / 100 bar) & 350 °C temperature and MOC SS316. The

    same may change for higher pressure / temperature & different MOC autoclaves.

  • Overall dimensions are indicative, they may change depending on the optional accessories or specific design modifications opted.
  • Maximum reaction volume will be 75% of net filling volume (i.e. autoclave volume).
  • Total equipment electrical load = Motor kw+ Heater kw + Auto Cooling pump (0.37kw) (if opted)+(any accessories if selected)

Since development is continuous process, the above specifications are subject to change without prior notice.


Gas Pressure Regulator

Gas Pressure Regulator thumb

To manually charge different gases at desired pressure upto 140 bar (Kg/cm2) / 2000 psi or higher into the reactor from gas cylinder. Nitrogen, Oxygen & Hydrogen can be charged through same regulator (with special adaptor). Regulator for other gases like NH3, CO2 etc. can also be offered. The regulator comes with inlet-outlet pressure gauges & SS braided teflon high pressure hose pipe (4m long).

Gas Booster

Gas Booster thumb

Gas boosters are useful when the cylinder pressures are much lower than the autoclave rated pressures. In such case the booster takes gas at lower pressure from cylinder & compresses the same to deliver at higher pressures upto 5000 psig. They are generally pneumatically operated. Special gas booster pumps are available for liquid CO2 used in supercritical Fluid Extraction System. The booster systems are supplied with air filter regulator, pressure relief valves, inlet-outlet pressure gauges & valves.

Thermal gas mass flow meter/controller

MFC thumb

Thermal Mass Flow Meters (MFM) can be used to measure the accurate mass flow rate of gas (in gm/hr or LPH) & totalised quantity of mass/volume (in gms/ltr.) charged in autoclave at any point. Mass flow controller (MFC) is used to charge the set flow rate of gas into the autoclave at high pressures up to 350 bar (Kg/cm2) or it can be used in pressure control mode to indicate the gas flow & total gas uptake to maintain desired set pressure inside the autoclave (ideal for hydrogenation). The same MFM / MFC can be used for multiple gases by just entering the conversion factor for different gas densities provided the gases are inert to each other. The MFM/MFC comes with high pressure flexible hose, inlet filter with digital gas flow indicator cum totalizer & additional pressure PID controller with pressure sensor if the MFC is used in pressure control mode. User has to specify the max. flow rate range, pressure, gas & mode (flow control or pressure control) for ordering MFM/MFC. Optionally MFM/MFC certified for use in zone 1 hazardous area offered on request.

Coriolis Gas-Liquid Mass Flow Meter/Controller

Coriolis MFC thumb

These are used for higher & accurate gas or liquid flow rate indication or control where thermal mass flow meters are not suitable. Common meter can be used for all the gases & liquids with only change in pressure drops and flow rate ranges.

Digital Pressure Indicator / Controller

DPI thumb

It consists of SS316 pressure sensor (transmitter) & digital pressure indicator/ controller (mounted on common control panel) with pressure alarm & optionally heater cut off for safety. Digital pressure indicator has pressure reading in bar & psi, where as controller reads any one of the units. The controller is normally used with mass flow controller (MFC) or solenoid/flow control valve to maintain constant pressure inside the autoclave. With MFC, gas flow indicator & totalizer are also provided on the same panel. The pressure sensor has temperature limitation upto 80°C & hence the same is provided with water cooling jacket. Optionally intrinsically safe pressure sensor with IIC certification is provided. Pressure sensors with Hastelloy C / Inconel wetted parts can be offered on request.

Liquid / Slurry / Gas Charging High Pressure Pot

Gas charging pot 1 thumb

It is used to transfer liquid or gases in to the autoclave under pressure. It consists of high pressure SS-316 pot designed for working pressure 100 bar (kg/cm2) or higher with port for Nitrogen gas (N2), liquid / slurry inlet, outlet, pressure gauge, pressure safety valve, high pressure hose & NRV. The liquid to be charged is fed into the pot from top funnel & pressurized with N2 gas until its pressure is higher than the autoclave pressure & then under pressure the liquid is charged into the autoclave. The quantity & rate of flow of liquid charged is not known precisely in this system. However a level indicator or sight glass or weighing balance or flow meter can be provided optionally to measure the liquid charged or it’s flow rate. Pots of different pressure, M.O.C. & sizes can be offered. These pots can also be used for storage of gases when gas cylinders are far off. With this option approximate quantity or flow of gas consumed can also be determined by measuring the pressure drop.
Sizes: ½ ltr., 1 ltr., 2 ltrs., 5 ltrs., 10 ltrs.

Ethylene Oxide Pot

Ethylene Oxide Pot thumb

It consists of SS 316 ethylene oxide (EO) horizontal pot with inlet, outlet, gas inlet with dip tube, thermowell, pressure gauge & high pressure hose pipe for 10 bar (kg/cm2) working pressure. It is used for ethoxylation. It can be supplied with flame proof weighing balance to measure the quantity of EO charged.
Sizes: 2 ltrs. & 5 ltrs.

Liquid Metering Pump System

Liquid Metering Pump System thumb

This system is used to charge the liquid at desired rate from as low as 1 ml/hr. to 100 ltr./hr, when the autoclave is under pressurized condition. The system comes with metering pump, flow indicator, controller, liquid sump, pressure gauge, strainer, high pressure hose. Optionally pressure safety valve, flow totalizer is also provided. AMAR offers 2 types of pumps.

  1. Low cost diaphragm pumps for pressures upto 100 bar & min. flow range of 60-600 ml/hr. to max. 10-100 ltrs./hr. The flow rates are varied by varying the motor speed with variable frequency drive.
  2. High pressure more accurate HPLC type low flow metering pumps for high pressures upto 350 bar & flow range from 0.01 upto 100 ml/min. These pumps can be used along with precision weighing scales to measure the total liquid charged at any point of time.

Optionally, in line flow meters can be connected to measure the actual flow of the liquids.

Auto Cooling System

Autocooling thumb

The system is useful to control temperatures overshoot for highly exothermic / runaway reactions & for faster cooling after the reaction is over.
The control panel of the autoclave gives 230V, 1Ø output to connect external auto-cooling system. AMAR gives 2 options:

  1. Solenoid valve, flameproof IIC (for autoclaves upto 25 ltrs.) or
  2. Pneumatically actuated ball valves (for autoclaves above 25 ltrs. ) connected at the inlet of the internal cooling coil with external source of water supply. This is standard for 50 ml – 250 ml autoclaves, however for bigger autoclaves if the cold water line pressure is < 2 bar then it is better to opt for external pump & tank water cooling system. Normal tap water cooling is not effective at higher temperatures due to steam back pressure whereas pump & tank autocooling system gives positive pressure & faster cooling.
  3. Pump & Water Cooling Tank: It consists of a SS 304 water tank & pump to circulate water in the internal cooling coil of reactors. Cooling starts automatically if the rate of heating rises suddenly. It comes with non FLP / FLP monoblock pump tank, pipeline & flexible hose pipes with QRC & is mounted on the autoclave trolley itself. It can also be used to circulate water in the cooling coil of external aluminum cast heater when internal coil is not possible. Ice can be put in the water or the hot water can be discharged & fresh water replenished on continuous basis for more effective and faster cooling.

Low Temperature Cooling circulator

Low temp cooling circulator thumb

It is used to reduce the autoclave temperature to as low as upto -50°C from room temperature to carry out reactions at lower temperatures by circulating thermic fluid in the internal cooling coil / jacket of autoclave. It consists of single/double stage compressors, condenser, circulation pump & temperature controller for thermic fluid & reactor. The system can be with bath or closed loop bathless type for efficient & faster heat transfer.

Thermic Fluid Heating circulator

Thermic Fluid Heating Circulator thumb

It is opted only if heating is jacket type & the area is totally flameproof or direct electric band heaters are not permissible. Heating can be done by circulating hot thermic fluid through the jacket of the autoclave. The system comes with SS tank, electric heaters, level switch, pump for thermic fluid & reactor. The heating system is non flame proof & can be kept at a distance in safe area, if the reactor is in flame proof area. The system can be with bath or closed loop bathless type for efficient & faster heat transfer. Open bath system can be offered upto max. 150°C inside the reactor (due to fuming of thermic fluid) & are available upto 25 ltrs. autoclaves only, whereas closed loop systems can be offer upto 250°C inside the reactor & upto 1000 ltrs. volume.

Common single fluid Heating & Cooling circulator

Common heating fluid heating cooling circulator thumb

If heating & cooling both are to be done by circulating thermic fluid through reactor jacket then, common single fluid heating & cooling system (open bath/closed loop) for temperatures from -50 to 200°C inside the reactor can be offered. Open bath system can be offered upto max. 150°C inside the reactor (due to fuming of thermic fluid) & are available upto 25 ltrs. autoclaves only, whereas closed loop systems can be offer upto 250°C inside the reactor & upto 1000 ltrs. volume.
Note: All the above systems are supplied with 6 ft flexible insulated hose & optionally suitable thermic fluid.

Flow Control Valves

Flow control valves thumb

These valves can be connected at jacket inlet for controlling flow of steam/ hot oil/ water for temperature control from PID or at the inlet or outlet of the autoclaves for pressure control. Amar gives 2 options.

  1. On/off pneumatic ball valve actuated by 230V output from panel to FLP IIC solenoid valve inline of air supply
  2. Pneumatic proportionate flow control valves with I to P converter (for accurate temperature / pressure control).

Reflux Condenser

Reflux Condenser thumb

It is a jacketed tube SS-316 (0.01m2, 0.02m2 or 0.05m2 area) heat exchanger used to reflux the condensate back into the reactor & vent off the uncondensed vapours. It is connected directly on the autoclave lid & works under full autoclave pressure. Reflux condensers can be offered in different MOC & area.


Condenser thumb

It is a SS-316 shell & tube reverse flow heat exchanger for distillation/condensing the vent vapours from the autoclave upto 10Kg/cm2 pressure. It can be offered in all different MOC, higher pressure & different surface areas such as 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 & 2 m2. The condensate can be collected separately in receiver or optionally refluxed back into the reactor.

Receiver Pot

Receiver Pot thumb

SS 316 receiver pot can be connected at the outlet of the shell & tube or Reflux condenser to collect the condensate separately. It is also provided with port to apply vacuum & offered in 250 ml, ½ ltr., 1 ltr., 2 ltrs. & 5 ltrs. sizes. Higher sizes & other MOC can be offered on special request. It can be optionally provided with level indication.

Back Pressure Regulator

Back pressure regulator thumb

It is mounted on the vent line of the autoclave & is used for maintaining constant pressure inside the autoclave. The pressure is maintained by releasing the excess pressure into the atmosphere or through a hose to safe area. The pressure can be set initially on the gauge, by manually varying the knob until the gas comes out. Once the set pressure is exceeded the excess pressure is released until the autoclave pressure becomes equal to or below the set pressure. The pressure release is slow & gradual & the set pressure can be varied at any point. Alternately electronic digital back pressure regulator can be offered on request, where the pressure is set digitally & can be released at preset rate of pressure release.

Pressure Safety Valve

Pressure safety valve thumb

High pressure autoclaves are provided with built in safety rupture disc, however additional safety can be offered by providing pressure safety valve whose release pressure can be set manually for a wide range by increasing or decreasing the spring tension. The set pressure should normally be around the max. allowable working pressure. Safety relief valves are standard supply for glass, rocker & fabricated reactors where rupture discs are not available for low pressure. These valves come with PTFE / Viton orings which may not be suitable for certain gases & solvents.

Chain pulley lifting system

Chain pulley lifting system thumb

For autoclave sizes from 10 ltrs. to 250 ltrs. the head & vessel are too heavy to lift manually. Hence chainpulley block mounted on same trolley with SS Stand can be offered for lifting the head with minimum efforts. Electric chainpulley hoists can be offered on request.

SCADA Software for Remote Operation & Recording

Scada software thumb

SCADA is a supervisory control & data acquisition software with all controllers / indicators having RS485 modbus communication port or PLC & HMI, for online display, set point changes & data logging of pressure, temp., Motor RPM, motor torque % & optionally liquid / gas flow rate with totaliser, heater temperature etc. remotely from PC as well as locally from panel. It gives continuous online data logging at predefined variable time interval, online graphical representation as well as historical data & graphs on PC for single or multiple autoclaves. RS 485-232 convertor & cable upto 10m or higher is also supplied. Wireless data communication from PC to panel can be supplied on request.


Liners thumb

Removable Teflon / Metal / Glass liners can be offered for autoclaves from 100 ml – 5 ltrs. size. These liners can be used for reactions that are corrosive, to prevent only the autoclave body from corrosion. Teflon & glass liners can be used upto 200°C, metal upto 500°C. The heat transfer is also very poor with teflon liners. Hence, Amar recommends the use of complete corrosion resistance metal autoclaves made from special alloys like Hastelloy, Inconel, Titanium etc. over glass/teflon liners. Liners should be used only if cost is the constraint or corrosive chemicals are to be used sparingly. Metal liners can be offered in Hastelloy C, Inconel, Monel, Nickel, Titanium etc.

Catalyst Basket

Catalyst Basket thumb

It is provided to improve the efficiency of the catalysts & for holding the catalyst so that it will not be destroyed or changed by the stirring action of impeller. The baskets are made from SS wire mesh & connected to the stirrer so that it rotates with the stirrer. It is available for 450 ml – 100 ltrs. Autoclave. The catalyst basket can be static which is stationary & dynamic which rotates with the impeller.

Catalyst Filters

Catalyst Filters thumb

These are small 7 microns sintered cup filters which are threaded to bottom of the sampling dip tube so that while sampling liquid, the catalyst does not come out. It is very useful when the catalyst is normally very expensive or pyrophoric. These filters may reduce the rate/ flow of the sampling liquid due to the resistance offered by the fine mesh, hence they need regular cleaning to prevent choking. Filters are available for 450 ml – 100 ltrs. autoclaves. These filters are available in SS 316 & Hastelloy C.

Catalyst Addition Device

Catalyst addition device thumb

It is used for one time catalyst charging under pressure during the reaction. It consists of a 3 ml to 150 ml (depending on Autoclave size) small container with airtight cap, that is openable. The powder is filled in the container which is then threaded to the autoclave head from below to a separate port with needle valve on the top. Under atmospheric & pressurized conditions the powder remains inside the container as the cap remains closed. One has to apply gas pressure greater than autoclave pressure from the needle valve on that port so that the cap opens & releases the catalyst inside the autoclave under pressure. Depending on the optional accessories selected, sometimes the catalyst addition device may not be possible due to space constraint on the head. Available for autoclave sizes 100 ml – 100 ltrs. & upto 250°C.

Catalyst filtration & recycling system

Catalyst filtration and recycling system thumb

It consists of vertical SS sintered filter cartridges in a SS housing. After the batch is over the reactor liquid is transferred to the catalyst filter under reactor/nitrogen pressure. After the filtration is over, the catalyst is taken back in to the reactor by back washing, thus recycling the same & making it available for the next batch. Generally this system is suitable & available for 10L & above reactor volumes.

Catalyst Slurry Charging System

Catalyst slurry charging system thumb

It is a pressure reactor with magnetic drive stirring, inlet & outlet valves, pressure gauge & nitrogen/vent. Solvent & catalyst are charged in the vessel & the slurry formed by mixing is transferred under nitrogen pressure into the reactor. The pressure rating & volume of this system is designed depending on the volume of catalyst, pressure & temperature rating of the autoclave.
This system is suitable for 50L & above reactor volume.

Catch Pot

Catch pot thumb

It is used to collect the vent vapours / gases from the autoclave vent / rupture disc / safety valve port, when the vapour / gas is highly hazardous to release directly into the atmosphere.
It is a pressure vessel, taken almost double the volume of the autoclave & designed for less than half the reactor working pressure. It is provided with inlet, outlet, vent, pressure gauge, safety valve & optionally a frame arrestor. It is normally filled with water. The gases / vapours collected are safely released through the flame arrestor to avoid any hazard. It is suitable & available for autoclaves from 10 ltrs. to 1000 ltrs.

Vacuum Pump

vacuum pump thumb

Suitable rotary vane or diaphragm vacuum pumps can be supplied for vacuum from 700mm of Hg upto 10-3 mm of Hg in the reactor depending on the pump type selected. It is used either before starting the batch or for high vacuum distillation. Suitable analogue or digital vacuum indicator with controller can be offered on request.

Level transmitter / pH / turbidity / DO / ORP / IR / Torque sensor

Lvel trans thumb

  1. Level transmitter / switch / indicator to measure or maintain level inside the reactor unique high pressure.
  2. pH / turbidity / DO / ORP / sensors with indicators & controllers for high pressure & temperature application.
  3. Torque sensor for accurate measurement of the motor torque, where change in torque indicates change in viscosity of the reaction.

Baffles / View windows / Sampling pot

pH turbidity thumb

  1. Removable internal baffles for better stirring (but cooling coil has to be removed in small autoclaves).
  2. Quartz / sapphire view glass windows in jacketed vessels to see the reaction.
  3. Sampling pot with condenser for cooling / condensing & collecting the sample taken at high pressure & temperature.

Note: All accessories may not be available for all models

Stirred lab autoclaves
[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Material of Construction[/title]All wetted parts are made from SS-316.[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Optional:[/title]

SS-316L, Hastelloy B/C, Titanium, Monel, Nickel, Inconel, Zirconium, Tantalum, Carbon Steel etc. for different liquids corrosive to SS-316.

Amar offers all the internal & optionally external wetted parts in the same material of construction as that of body & head to give complete corrosion resisting autoclaves. Most of the above materials are available for stirred, non-stirred, fabricated, glass & shaker autoclaves.

General Corrosion Properties of some Metals and Alloys*

[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Ratings[/title]

0  –   Unsuitable. Not available in form required or not suitable for fabrication requirements or not suitable for corrosion conditions.

1  –   Poor to fair

2  –   Fair. For mild conditions or when periodic replacement is possible. Restricted use.

3  –   Fair to good

4  –   Good. Suitable when superior alternative are uneconomical

5  –   Good to excellent

6  –   Normally excellent

Small variations in service condition may appreciably affect corrosion. Choice of material is therefore guided wherever possible by a combination of experience and laboratory and site tests.

MaterialsNon-oxidizing or reducing mediaLiquidsGases
Acid solutions, excluding hydrochloric Phosphoric sulfuric (most condition many organics)Neutral solutions, e.g. many Non-oxidizing salt solutions, chlorides, sulfatesAlkaline solutions e.g.Oxidizing MediaHalogen and derivatives
Caustic and mild alkalies, excluding ammonium hydroxideAmmonium hydroxide and aminesAcid solutions, e.g. nitricNeutral or alkaline Solutions e.g. per sulfates, peroxides, chromatesPitting media, acid ferric chloride solutionsHalogenHalide acids, moist, e.g. hydrochloric hydrolysis products of organic halidesHydrogen halides, dry, e.g., dry, Hydrogen chloride, ºC
Moist, e.g., chlorine below dew pointDry, e.g. Fluorine above dew point
Stainless Steel,
(SS 316)
Hastelloy C 27656564655444<400
Hastelloy B65440301354<400
Inconel 60036663612535<220
Monel 40056610512636<220
Nickel 200-commercial45610502626<220

[title type=’2′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Material Selection Guide[/title]

AMAR gives recommendation for material selection for particular media, however it does not guarantee 100% corrosion resistance of a particular M.O.C to a particular corrosive media, as it also depends on various parameters like temperature, pressures, concentration etc. of the reactions. Reactors vessels of moc SS316, up to 5 ltrs. are machined from rolled / forged bar stock & reactors above 5 ltrs. are normally fabricated from plates. the lid is always from rolled / forged bar stock up to 100 ltrs. SS316 autoclave. The material listed below may not be available in all possible sizes.

[title type=’2′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Stainless Steel 316 / 316L[/title]SS316 & 316L has almost identical corrosion resistance properties, only that 316L is a low carbon stainless steel.

[title type=”4″ style=””]It has excellent corrosion resistance to [/title]

  • Most organic acid systems like acetic, formic etc.
  • Ammonia & most ammonia compounds
  • Many salts except chlorides
  • Most commercial gases at moderate temperature & pressures.
  • Hydrogen chloride, fluoride & chloride in scrupulously anhydrous systems

[title type=”4″ style=””]It has poor resistance to [/title]

  • Organic halides
  • Dilute sulfuric, sulfurous, phosphoric & nitric acids at high temperatures & Pressures.
  • Halogen acids at low temperature & in dilute forms
  • Caustics, Halogen Salts, chlorides

[title type=’2′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Hastelloy C276 / C22 / C2000[/title]It is a nickel, chromium, molybdenum alloy that has the widest corrosion resistance & is the most widely used alloy for corrosive media & next most popular after SS316

[title type=”4″ style=””]It has excellent corrosion resistance to [/title]

  • Variety of chloride compounds & chlorine contaminated material
  • Strong oxidizing chloride solutions such as wet chlorine & hydrochloride & sodium hypochlorite solutions
  • Concentrated Hydrochloric, Sulfuric & Phosphoric acids

Depending on the application C276, C22 or C2000 can be selected but C276 is the most common & easily available grade.

[title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Hastelloy B2[/title]It is a nickel molybdenum alloy & offers excellent corrosion resistance to solutions of Hydrochloric, Sulfuric & Phosphoric acid in all concentrations & at all temperatures in the absence of oxidizing agents.

[title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Monel 400[/title]It has better resistance than nickel in reducing environments.

[title type=”4″ style=””]It has excellent corrosion resistance to [/title]

  • Caustic Solutions
  • Chloride salts
  • Fluorine & hydrogen fluoride

[title type=”4″ style=””]It has poor resistance to Nitric acid & Ammonia systems.[/title]

[title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Inconel 600[/title]
[title type=”4″ style=””]It is a nickel alloy & offers excellent resistance to[/title]

  • Caustic & chlorides at high temperature & pressure when sulfur compounds are present.
  • Also suitable for very high temperature applications.
  • Reducing – oxidizing environment
  • Sulfur free gases

[title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Nickel 200 / 201[/title]
[title type=”4″ style=””]It offers excellent corrosion resistance to [/title]

  • Handling concentrated alkalis
  • Hot caustic environment
  • Chlorinated solvents & Phenol

[title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Titanium Gr 2 / Gr 4[/title]
[title type=”4″ style=””]It is lighter material & has excellent corrosion resistance to [/title]

  • Oxidizing agents such as aqua regia & other mixed acids
  • Nitric acid at all concentrations except red fuming nitric acid
  • Chloride ions, Ferric chloride, cupric chloride & other hot chloride solutions.
  • Mild reducing media such as sulfuric & hydrochloric acid
  • Titanium burns vigorously in presence of oxygen at high temperatures & pressures.

The material becomes softer above 250°C & hence not advisable above 250°C.

[title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Zirconium[/title]
[title type=”4″ style=””]It offers excellent corrosion resistance to [/title]

  • Reducing environments
  • All chlorides except ferric & cupric
  • Hydrochloride & Sulfuric acids below 70% concentrations.
  • Phosphoric, nitric acids & alkaline solutions.

[title type=”4″ style=””]It has poor resistance to oxidizing agents.[/title]

[title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Tantalum[/title]Tantalum is practically inert to many oxidizing & reducing acids. It offers the best & most outstanding resistance to wide variety of corrosive media including hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric & phosphoric acids. It is attacked by hot alkalis & hydrofluoric acid. The costs are prohibitive however tantalum liner or inner wetted parts of tantalum & others part of Titanium or hastelloy C can be offered. Small sizes such as 50 ml – 750 ml can be manufactured completely in Tantalum. The max. temp. are restricted upto 250°C only.

[title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Chemical Composition of material of construction of autoclave (Major Elements in %)[/title]

Sr. No.MaterialFeNiCrMoCOther
1Stainless Steel SS31660 – 679 – 1218 – 212 – 30.082.0 Si, 1.5 Mn
2Hastelloy-C2764 – 755 – 6314.5 – 16.515 – 170.023-4.5W
3Hastelloy-B2267 – 71126 – 300.02
4Monel – 4002650.32.3 – 3.1 Al, 0.35-0.85 Ti, 30 Cu
5Inconel – 6006 – 1073 – 8014 – 170.15
6Nickel – 2000.499.40.15
7Titanium Gr. 2/Gr. 499% Pure Titanium
8Zirconium 70295.5 — Zr, 4.5 HF

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Nozzles, Valves & Fittings[/title]
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[column_item span=’2′]
Pressure gauge, vent needle valve, safety rupture disc(rated to rupture at MAWP), internal cooling coil, thermowell (with RTD-PT-100 temp. sensor), gas inlet & liquid sampling needle valves with a common dip tube (sparger) upto the bottom.

[title type=’5′ style=’underline’]Optional[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
a) Ball valve with funnel for powder / slurry / liquid inlet (These are valves with 1/4”-2” size, depending on autoclave volume they can be used for charging solids or liquid slurry at atmospheric pressure or higher pressure, if high pressure liquid charging pot is also ordered).
ball valve with funnel

[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
b) Flush bottom valve with almost zero dead volume (some times additional ball valve at the outlet of flush bottom valve can be provided on special request).
flush bottom valve

[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
c) Serpentine cooling coil instead of helical for easy cleaning (450 ml to 100 ltrs.).
cooling coil

[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
d) Teflon coated SS diaphragm or Hastelloy C / Monel / Tantalum etc. diaphragm pressure gauge for corrosive media in non SS autoclaves.
diaphragm pressure gauge
[/columns]Options (a) & (b) are standard for 10 ltrs. & above autoclaves.

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Body & Head Sealing[/title]
[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]i) Split clamp bolt design (N):[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
Split clamp type quick opening system with clamp bolts & tongue & groove sealing with PTFE head gasket for temperatures upto 350°C and metallic grafoil head gasket for temperatures upto 500°C for reactors upto 100 ltrs. The split clamps are held in position together by a latch to prevent flying of clamps in event of accidental over pressure. This design is available upto 350 bar pressure.
split clamp

[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]ii) Taper clamp design:[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
Taper split clamp type quick opening design with 2 clamp bolts & tongue & groove sealing with PTFE head gasket for temperatures upto 350°C and metallic grafoil head gasket for temperatures upto 500°C for reactors upto 100 ltrs. The split clamps are tightened together with 2 bolts with hand to give leak tight seal. This design is available upto 350 bar pressure.
taper clamp

[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]iii) Self sealing design (V):[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
The head & body can alternatively be sealed by a self sealing design in which there are no clamp bolts. Only the split clamps & Viton / Kalrez ‘O’ ring can be used to give sealing under pressure. The head with ‘O’ ring is fixed to the body by just sliding the split clamps with latch. This is very easy & convenient for closing & opening the autoclave. However with Viton ‘O’ ring max. temperature is 225°C & with Kalrez max temperature is 275°C. Although Kalrez has better chemical resistance than Viton but the same is exorbitantly expensive. This sealing can be offered for pressures of 100 bar only. While selecting a Viton ‘O’ ring customers have to check the suitability with solvents, ammonia etc. as Viton gets easily attacked by many of them. This design is available upto 2 ltrs. size only.
self sealing

[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]iv) Threaded sealing (C):[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
For 50 ml – 250 ml vessels there is alternative ‘O’ ring seal design with threaded clamp & threaded vessel for ease of opening & tightening by hand.
threaded sealing

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Head Mounting Style[/title]
[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Removable Head Design (H)[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
This is the most commonly used option & available for all sizes of autoclaves. Here the body rests on the stand / trolley & the head is lifted for charging, discharging & cleaning. Also the vessel is removable for charging / discharging / cleaning. This is more common as the head can be taken out easily for pressure testing, fitting accessories, servicing etc. & is more economical.
compact motor drive autoclave

[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Optional: Fixed Head Design (K/M)[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
Available for 50 ml – 10 ltrs. autoclaves only

In this system the head of the autoclave is fixed with motor stand & the vessel & heater are raised & lowered manually by sliding or manually by rotating screw or electrically by motor & gear box. The vessel or heater can be slided manually up & down for assembly or disassembly for 50 ml to 250 ml autoclaves, manually screwed up & down for 450 ml to 1 ltr. autoclaves & motorized lift is provided for 450 ml to 10 ltrs. autoclaves. This system is useful when the head of the autoclave has lot of fittings & accessories, making it difficult to lift the head & detach all the fittings after every batch. Also removing the heater for faster cooling & ease of lifting or lowering the vessel is advantageous.
Fixed head metal

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Motor & Drive[/title]
[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]a) Top mounted AC motor[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]
Non flameproof (NX) – Flameproof (FLP)/ Explosion proof AC motor (for Group IIA/ IIB gases-XB) suitable in hazardous area for all flammable liquids / gases except hydrogen & acetylene with variable frequency drive & stirrer RPM indication. The motor is coupled to the magnetic drive directly by specially designed coupling ensuring quick engagement & disengagement of motor from autoclave head. The direct coupling eliminates pulleys, belts & minimizes transmission loses, noise, vibrations & maintenance. The frequency drive can indicate motor current / Torque % (on selection). This is useful to monitor the change in viscosity of the liquid under stirring. The frequency drive is mounted on a common control panel. It has the facility to trip the motor on any overload, over voltage or over current.RPM Range : 100 – 1450Motor Options:

  • Flameproof AC Motor group IIC (XC) CE Atex certified (Ideal for H? gas).
  • Motors with gear box can be offered for stirring highly viscous material at low rpm & are standard for 50-100 ltrs. reactors.
  • Motors with 2900 rpm for stirring at high speeds.

Motor & Drive 1

[title type=’4′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]b) Compact Motor Drive (BD):[/title]
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[column_item span=’2′]
Compact inline brushless / PMDC motor & magnetic drive & speed controller with indicator for 300-1500 rpm. Available for autoclaves from 50 ml – 25 ltrs. volume metal & glass autoclaves. Very compact, economical & light weight. No external rotational part.
magnetically couple compact stirrer1
Note: NX, XC & BD motors are CE marked.

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Stirrer Types[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]a) Single or two stage, 4/6 bladed pitch blade turbine type impellerOptional :

b) Propeller

c) Ruston turbine

d) Paddle

e) Hollow shaft for max. gas dispersion at higher rpm, Ideal for hydrogenation or any gas-liquid reaction.

f) Anchor/anchor with PTFE blades for viscous liquids at low rpm (max. 200rpm).

g) Spiral for highly viscous polymers/ mixtures with downward thrust at low rpm (max. 200 rpm).

Note :

  • Other specially designed stirrers like helixane (helix cum anchor) etc. can be offered on request.
  • Gear box has to be provided & cooling coil has to be removed & plugged for (f) & (g) & (h).

Stirrer Types

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Heating System[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]Electrical ceramic band heating mantle (CE) with ceramic wool insulation & SS cladding.Optional :

a) Flameproof / explosion proof IIB ? H? certified, aluminium cast Heater for H2 gas with totally enclosed heating element inside metal tubes (EA). Optionally the heater also has inbuilt cooling coils & is useful when internal cooling coils are not possible. It is suitable for max. 250°C inside the autoclave. Heating rates are lower in FLP heaters in comparison to ceramic band heaters.

b) SS-304 jacket for oil / steam heating with insulation & cladding (JS).

c) If direct electric heating is not permitted (due to spot heating) heater can be provided on jacket with oil inside. The heater can heat the oil which can in turn heat autoclave uniformly.

d) External heater temperature thermocouple is provided for cascade temperature control to ensure safety of heater, vessel & accurate temperature control. It is standard feature in aluminum cast heaters.

e) All ceramic band heaters are CE marked.

Heating System

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Control Panel[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
[column_item span=’2′]Compact SS-304 (for corrosion resistance & longer life) control panel with microprocessor based accurate programmable PID temperature controller cum indicator with temperature alarm system (settable), safety alarm & heater trip system for malfunctioning of controller / sensor / temperature rise beyond set limit. The motor speed drive is mounted on the same panel for stirred autoclaves. 3 phase panels are provided with phase current indicator. This helps in identifying if any of the 3 heaters have failed. Motor, heater, cooling / solenoid valve / pump / sensors etc. utilities are connected to panel by simple plug & socket arrangement. The panel is very easy to open & all internal components are plug socket type, making replacement easy. Digital pressure indicator / controller/ flow indicator / totaliser / motor current indicator / heater temperature cascade controller / torque indicator / level indicator / pH / DO / ORP / turbidity etc. indicators are provided additionally on same common control panel depending on the optional accessories selected.Optional :

a) Digital temperature indicator in flameproof enclosure mounted on trolley & non FLP SS panel mounted remotely in safe area.

b) Complete flame proof (FLP) Group IIA/IIB or IIC control panel mounted on trolley.
Note: FLP panels should be opted only if the heater & motors are FLP and area is totally ex-proof as FLP panels are too bulky & inconvenient for operation & maintenance.

c) Touch screen panel with SCADA software for single or multiple autoclaves.

d) Panels with RS 485 port for PC communication through SCADA software without local display.

e) CE marked control panel with LVD & EMC testing can be supplied on request.

Control Panel

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Mounting[/title]
[columns count=’3′]
Table , Bench Top (TT)
Floor Stand (FS)
Trolley (TL)
[/columns]Trolley(TL), table / bench top(TT), floor stand(FS)Complete autoclave with motor drive assembly is mounted on easily movable SS-304 trolley (for corrosion resistance & longer life) with 4 lockable wheels & the trolley top is big enough to mount the optional accessories & also the control panel. Table / bench top model is for keeping the autoclave on platform. Table top mounting is offered for sizes from 25 ml to 2 ltrs. only. In table top model the panel & accessories if any have to be mounted separately. In floor stand mounting the autoclave mounting plate is supported by 4, SS-304 legs without wheels & there will be no space for mounting any accessories or panel. This is useful when there is space constraint or panel is mounted remotely.

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Interchangeable stirred Metal autoclave[/title]
[columns count=’2′]
Interchangeable Stirred metal autoclave option 1
Interchangeable Stirred metal autoclave option 2 thumb
[/columns][title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Features[/title]

  • Option 1: Interchangeable 2 different size autoclaves with common head, body clamp, panel motor & trolley. In this model, the minimum stirrable volume is same for both sizes.
    Option 2: Interchangeable any 2 different size autoclaves with common panel, motor & trolley
    Cost of head, clamp, fittings, panel, motor & trolley of one autoclave can be saved if space is the constraint
  • Pressures upto 350 bar and temperatures upto 500°C.
  • Available in different Material of Constructions (MOC) like SS-316, SS-316L, Hastelloy B/C, Monel, Nickel, Inconel, Titanium, Tantalum, Zirconium etc.

Refer page no. 16 of the catalog for more information.

[title type=’2′ style=’underline’]Interchangeable stirred metal & glass autoclave[/title]
[columns count=’2′]
fixe head interchangeable thumb
intrchangeable ss & glass thumb
[/columns][title type=’3′ top=”20″ color=’orange’]Features[/title]

  • Common lid with motor, magnetic drive, internal and external fittings, panel etc. with jacketed / electrical / non jacketed metal or glass vessels.
  • Pressures upto 100 bar for metal autoclave & upto 6 bar for glass autoclave
  • Temperatures upto 500°C for metal autoclave & upto 200°C for glass autoclave

Refer page no. 22 of the catalog for more information.